The aim of this paper is to provide a systematic review of articles concerning primary osseointegrated dental implants in the head and neck oncology setting. We searched MEDLINE (1950 to March 2009) and Embase (1980 to March 2009) using the terms head and neck, oral, maxillofacial, craniofacial, jaws, mandible, maxilla, zygoma, dental implants, osseointegrated implants, implants, tumour, cancer, oncology, immediate, simultaneous, and primary. Two authors independently reviewed the abstracts, and all those written in the English language that referred to the placement of primary dental implants in patients with cancer of the head neck were included. Articles that referred to craniofacial or extraoral implants were excluded. Of 892 abstracts 83 were eligible for further consideration; the full articles were evaluated, and 41 that complied fully with the inclusion criteria are presented as a tabulated summary. There are three case reports, 13 reviews, and 25 clinical studies. Eight of the clinical studies refer solely to the insertion of dental implants at the time of primary oncological resection, and only two were of a prospective design. We have concisely summarised publications concerning primary dental implants, and our findings will help to inform head and neck cancer teams, particularly oncological surgeons, restorative dentists, and maxillofacial prosthodontists of the evidence base surrounding this approach to oral rehabilitation.